• Reading
  • Writing


Reading and writing are essential life skills that will enable children to participate in society.

Children will have opportunities to learn how to link sounds and letters and develop early reading, mark making and early writing skills, including developing gross and fine motor skills. Children have access to a wide range of books and practitioners plan opportunities for children to experience print in a variety of forms and in a variety of places. Children observe adults writing and given opportunities to write themselves for a variety of meaningful purposes.

Children listen to and identify environmental sounds, learn about patterns in language and the letters of alphabet and the sounds they represent through activities and play experiences that follow Linking Sounds and Letters Phase 1. Practitioners encourage enjoyment and pleasure in the use of rhyme, alliteration and other patterns in speech through rhymes, poems, stories and everyday language.

They will begin to:

  • Understand that pictures and print have meaning
  • Recognise and identify different environmental sounds
  • Associate sounds with patterns in speech
  • Recognise their own names and familiar words by shape and sound
  • They will be introduced to:
  • A large selection of books and story sacks including fiction, poetry and non fiction, that they can handle and enjoy, understanding that print is read from left to right and top to bottom.
  • Pictures and print in the environment
  • The letters of the alphabet, beginning to recognise them by shape and the sound they represent


Practitioners aim to provide a language rich environment that gives children opportunities to look at and learn about print in the setting, home and wider environments. Daily story times and singing sessions give children regular opportunities to share, listen to and respond to books, including fiction, poetry and non fiction. Practitioners recognise that children’s learning is holistic so books are planned into various areas of provision to enhance play and learning across all areas of learning. There are opportunities to recall, retell and create their own stories.

Practitioners model mark making and writing processes in both child initiated play and in adult led activities. Children have opportunities to develop upper body strength, fine motor skills and mark making using a wide range of materials in the indoor and outdoor learning environments. Children also have opportunities to write for a variety of purposes which have meaning to them.

Children will have the opportunity to:

  • Develop gross motor skills particularly upper body and hand-eye coordination and fine motor skills through a range of activities and experiences
  • Use mark making tools effectively
  • Communicate using their own mark making for a variety of purposes